Bruce E. Baker

HIS3212: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1914

Tutor: Dr Bruce Baker
Armstrong Building Room 1.24
(0191) 208 3636
bruce.baker@newcastle.ac.uk
Office Hours: Mondays 13:00-16:00
Semester: 1
Mondays, 10:00-13:00, Armstrong 1.05

Module Content:

The American Civil War brought the slave society of the South to an end and raised questions that would take half a century, and more, to answer: how could those who controlled the land continue to produce cotton and other export staples in a labour regime that was based on race but without the compulsions of slavery? How could former slaves find a place in new social and political systems? What effects would the integration of the region into national economic structures have on the lives of its inhabitants? This course examines these questions, studying the rise and fall of African American political power during Reconstruction, the changes in agriculture and the rise of industrialisation, racial violence and the origins of the segregation and disfranchisement of African Americans, and the fate of Progressive Era reform in the South. We will use a wide range of primary source material, including published works, manuscript collections, newspapers, and government records, most available in digital form. Since this is a Special Subject, the focus throughout will be on examining primary documents and texts and using them to reconstruct and interpret this period in American history.

Teaching and Assessment

Lectures, Seminars, and Private Study

This is a seminar-based module, which is taught by means of a weekly three-hour seminar and private study. All students are expected to turn up, prepared, to all seminars. If you are unable to attend due to illness, or for any other reason, please e-mail me in advance. The purpose of the seminars is to provide you with the opportunity to talk over the reading you have done on the week's topic and to discuss key events and themes from this period of American history. We will also spend some time each week working with primary material. At the beginning of the semester, you will be assigned a particular town or county in the South. Each week, you should seek out a contemporary newspaper article from the digitized newspapers available at http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov that illustrates the week's topic, write a brief paragraph (about 200 words or so) about it, and bring hard copies of the article and paragraph to the seminar to discuss. Alongside the seminars you are expected to complete approximately 268 hours of private study during the course of the semester.

Tutorials

I will be available during my weekly Office Hours for individual advice and guidance. If the Office Hours conflict with one of your other classes, you may be able to make an appointment with me for an alternative time.

Reading

Since this is a special subject you will be expected to devote a considerable amount of time (approximately 15 hours) each week to preparatory reading. It is essential that you do the reading before attending the lecture and do not rely simply on the lecture itself. The focus of discussion in the seminars will be on interpreting the primary sources, discussing the secondary literature, and exploring the issues raised. It will be assumed that you have gained some sense of the chronology and events through your own reading. The reading list below should provide a basis for preparatory reading for the lectures, seminars, assessed coursework, and revision. This list is, however, only a starting point and you should feel free to pursue and develop your own interests within the field.

Assessment

This module uses a combination of different forms of assessment as follows.
  • Primary Source Portfolio (20%)
    As explained in the section above on "Lectures, Seminars, and Private Study&qhot;, each week you will need to find a newspaper article (or other contemporary primary source) from your assigned location that is relevant to the week's topic. You should write 200 words about this and what light it sheds on the topic we are studying that week. These papers should conform in style to the standard guidelines for essays, and they will be handed in at the beginning of class each week (please bring yourself a spare copy to refer to during the discussion). If you are unable to hand in the portfolio component in class, you will need to submit a PEC form to request an extension. At the end of the semester, your portfolio of document discussions must contain 10 items, which will each make up 2% of the mark for the module.
  • Essay (25%)
    Part of the assessment will take the form of a 2,000-word essay to be submitted by 12.00 on the Wednesday of teaching week 4 (25 October 2017) in response to the essay question below. The essay must be word-processed and fully referenced in accordance with the School's Style Guide (see the Degree Programme Handbook). It should also include a full bibliography of works consulted, though this is not included in the word-count. The essay should compare either the process of emancipation or the end of Reconstruction in two different states in the South.
  • Review Essay (25%)
    The third component of the assessment will be a review essay of 2,000-word essay to be submitted by 12.00 on the Wednesday of teaching week 8 (22 November 2017). The review essay must be word-processed and fully referenced in accordance with the School's Style Guide (see the Degree Programme Handbook). It should also include a full bibliography of works consulted, though this is not included in the word-count. The review essay should evaluate three monographs on a topic of your choice (subject to approval) from the topics considered in this module. All three monographs should have been published since the year 2000.
  • Exam (30%)
    The unseen exam will be held during the assessment period of Semester 1.
  • Schedule

    • Monday, 2 October 2017 -- The End of Slavery and the Old South
    •  
    • Monday, 9 October 2017 -- Black Voting and the Transfomation of Southern Politics
    •  
    • Monday, 16 October 2017 -- The Death of Reconstruction
    •  
    • Monday, 23 October 2017 -- Reconstructing Southern Agriculture
    •  
    • Monday, 30 October 2017 -- Southern Politics after Reconstruction
    •  
    • Monday, 6 November 2017 -- Violence in the New South
    •  
    • Wednesday, 15 November 2017 -- essay surgery (9am-12pm)
    •  
    • Monday, 20 November 2017 -- Agrarian Protest and the Rise and Fall of the Populists
    •  
    • Monday, 27 November 2017 -- The Rise and Rise of Jim Crow
    •  
    • Monday, 4 December 2017 -- Industrialisation in the New South
    •  
    • Monday, 11 December 2017 -- The Progressive Era in the South
    •  
    • Monday, 8 January 2018 -- Overview of the South, 1865-1914

    Reading List

    N.B. Most of the items listed here are available in the Robinson Library, with a few exceptions. If you are unable to find an item that you want you may wish to make use of other libraries in the area. If you still can't find it, please let me know.

    Most of our primary source readings are available in digital format, and in many cases I have provided the links here.

    Topic 1: The End of Slavery and the Old South

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • Daniel E. Sutherland, A Savage Conflict: The Decisive Role of Guerrillas in the American Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009), Epilogue, 267-280.
    • Dan T. Carter, When the War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985), Ch. 1, "Social Disorder and Violence in the Land of the Vanquished," 6-23.
    • Steven Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South, from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), Ch. 2, 62-115.
    • Susan Eva O'Donovan, Becoming Free in the Cotton South (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007), Ch. 3 & 4, 111-207.
    Primary Sources Further Secondary Sources
    • Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution (New York: Harper & Row, 1988)
    • Bruce E. Baker and Brian Kelly, eds., After Slavery: Race, Labor, and Citizenship in the Reconstruction South (Gainesville: University Press of Flordiay, 2013)
    • Steven Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South, from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), Ch. 3, 116-59.
    • Stephen Kantrowitz, Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 40-47.
    • John C. Rodrigue, "Labor Militancy and Grassroots Black Mobilization in the Louisiana Sugar Region, 1865-1868," Journal of Southern History 67:1 (Feb. 2001): 115-42.
    • Steven Hahn, "'Extravagant Expectations' of Freedom: Rumour, Political Struggle, and the Christmas Insurrection Scare of 1865 in the American South," Past & Present 157 (Nov. 1997): 122-58.
    • Gregory P. Downs, After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Ends of War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015)

    Topic 2: Black Voting and the Transformation of Southern Politics

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • Elsa Barkley Brown, "Negotiating and Transforming the Public Sphere: African American Political Life in the Transition from Slavery to Freedom," available on the author's website and reprinted in Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon, eds., Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000), 28-66.
    • Heather Cox Richardson, "A Marshall Plan for the South? The Failure of Republican and Democratic Ideology during Reconstruction," Civil War History 51:4 (2005): 378-387.
    • Heather Cox Richardson, The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865-1901 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001), Ch. 1, "The Northern Postwar Vision, 1865-1867," 6-40.
    • Roger L. Ransom, "Options and Limitations to Federal Policies on Land Distribution in 1866-67," Civil War History 51:4 (2005): 364-377.
    • Brian Kelly, "Emancipations and Reversals: Labor, Race, and the Boundaries of American Freedom in the Age of Capital," International Labor and Working-Class History 75 (Spring 2009): 169-83.
    Primary Sources Further Secondary Sources
    • David S. Cecelski, The Waterman's Song: Slavery and Freedom in Maritime North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), Ch. 7, 179-201.
    • Rebecca J. Scott, "Defining the Boundaries of Freedom in the World of Cane: Cuba, Brazil, and Louisiana after Emancipation," American Historical Review 99 (Feb. 1994): 70-102.
    • Michael W. Fitzgerald, "Radical Republicanism and the White Yeomanry during Alabama Reconstruction, 1865-1868," Journal of Southern History 54:4 (Nov. 1988): 565-596.
    • Michael Perman, The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869-1879 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984
    • Steven Hahn, "Class and State in Postemancipation Societies: Southern Planters in Comparative Perspective," American Historical Review 95:1 (Feb. 1990): 75-98.
    • Claude F. Oubre, "'Forty Acres and a Mule': Louisiana and the Southern Homestead Act," Louisiana History 17:2 (Spring 1976): 143-57.
    • Steven Joseph Ross, "Freed Soil, Freed Labor, Freed Men: John Eaton and the Davis Bend Experiment," Journal of Southern History 44 (May 1978): 213-32.
    • Michael L. Lanza, "'One of the Most Appreciated Labors of the Bureau': The Freedmen's Bureau and the Southern Homestead Act," in Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, eds., The Freedmen's Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations (New York: Fordham University Press, 1999), 67-92.

    Topic 3: The Death of Reconstruction

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • Stephen Kantrowitz, Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 53-79.
    • Brian Kelly, "Black Laborers, the Republican Party, and the Crisis of Reconstruction in Lowcountry South Carolina," International Review of Social History 51:3 (Dec. 2006): 375-414.
    • Jill Lepore, "Rock, Scissors, Paper: How We Used to Vote," New Yorker, October 13, 2008
    • Heather Cox Richardson, The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865-1901 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001), Ch. 3, "Black Workers and the South Carolina Government, 1871-1875," 83-121.
    • Steven Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South, from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), Ch. 6, "Of Paramilitary Politics," 265-313.
    Primary Sources Further Secondary Sources
    • David S. Cecelski, The Waterman's Song: Slavery and Freedom in Maritime North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), Ch. 7, 179-201.
    • Rebecca J. Scott, "Defining the Boundaries of Freedom in the World of Cane: Cuba, Brazil, and Louisiana after Emancipation," American Historical Review 99 (Feb. 1994): 70-102.
    • Michael Perman, The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869-1879 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
    • Lou Falkner Williams, The Great South Carolina Ku Klux Klan Trials, 1871-1872 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996)
    • Elaine Frantz Parsons, "Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan," Journal of American History 92:3 (Dec. 2005): 811-36.
    • Allen W. Trelease, White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995)
    • Douglas R. Egerton, The Wars of Reconstruction: The Brief, Violent History of America's Most Progressive Era (New York: Bloomsbury, 2014).
    • Elaine Frantz Parsons, Ku-Klux: The Birth of the Klan during Reconstruction (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016)
    • LeeAnna Keith, The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, and the Death of Reconstruction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)
    • James K. Hogue, Uncivil War: Five New Orleans Street Battles and the Rise and Fall of Radical Reconstruction (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011)
    • Lisa Cardyn, "Sexualized Racism/Gendered Violence: Outraging the Body Politic in the Reconstruction South," Michigan Law Review 100:4 (Feb. 2002): 675-867.

    Topic 4: Reconstructing Southern Agriculture

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • Lacy K. Ford, "Rednecks and Merchants: Economic Development and Social Tensions in the South Carolina Upcountry, 1865-1900," Journal of American History 71 (Sep. 1984): 294-318.
    • Harold D. Woodman, "Postbellum Social Change and Its Effects on Marketing the South's Cotton Crop," Agricultural History 56:1 (Jan. 1982): 215-30.
    • Sven Beckert, "Emancipation and Empire: Reconstructing the Worldwide Web of Cotton Production in the Age of the American Civil War," American Historical Review 109:5 (Dec. 2004): 1405-38.
    Primary Sources Video Clips
    • A good close-up view and explanation of picking cotton here
    • A very through explanation of the whole harvest and handling process and manufacturing (just ignore the rather racist comments at the beginning and the cheesy version of "Dixie" in the background) here
    • In case you were wondering what mules and plows look like, you can get a pretty good sense here
    • There is a pretty good description (and good close-up images) of a cotton gin: here
    Further Secondary Sources
    • Harold D. Woodman, "The Decline of Cotton Factorage after the Civil War," American Historical Review 71:4 (Jul. 1966): 1219-36.
    • Charles S. Aiken, "The Evolution of Cotton Ginning in the Southeastern United States," Geographical Review 63:2 (April 1973): 196-224.
    • Giorgio Riello, Cotton: The Fabric That Made the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), Ch. 11.
    • Sven Beckert, "From Tuskegee to Togo: The Problem of Freedom in the Empire of Cotton," Journal of American History 92:2 (Sept. 2005): 498-526.
    • Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History (New York: Random House, 2014)
    • Jonathan M. Wiener, "Class Stucture and Economic Development in the American South, 1865-1955," American Historical Review 84:4 (Oct. 1979): 970-992.
    • James L. McCorkle, Jr., "Agricultural Experiment Stations and Southern Truck Farming," Agricultural History 62:2 (Spring 1988): 234-243 .

    Topic 5: Southern Politics after Reconstruction

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • Steven Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South, from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), Ch. 7-8 (pp.317-411).
    • Matthew Hild, "Labor, Third-Party Politics, and New South Democracy in Arkansas, 1884-1896," Arkansas Historical Quarterly 63:1 (Spring 2004): 24-43
    • Omar H. Ali, "Standing Guard at the Door of Liberty: Black Populism in South Carolina, 1886-1895," South Carolina Historical Magazine 107:3 (July 2006): 190-203
    • Stephen A. West, "'A Hot Municipal Contest': Prohibition and Black Politics in Greenville, South Carolina, after Reconstruction," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 11:4 (Oct. 2012): 519-551.
    Primary Sources Further Secondary Sources
    • Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: Knopf, 1976)
    • William Ivy Hair, Bourbonism and Agrarian Protest: Louisiana Politics, 1877-1900 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969)
    • Stephen Kantrowitz, Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), Ch. ?? (pages??)
    • William J. Cooper, Jr., The Conservative Regime: South Carolina, 1877-1890 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005 [1968])
    • Charles J. Holden, In the Great Maelstrom: Conservatives in Post-Civil War South Carolina (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2002)
    • George B. Tindall, South Carolina Negroes, 1877-1900, new ed., (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003)
    • Eric Anderson, Race and Politics in North Carolina, 1872-1901: The Black Second (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981)
    • Gregory P. Downs, Declarations of Dependence: The Long Reconstruction of Popular Politics in the South, 1861-1908 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011)
    • Matthew Hild, Greenbackers, Knights of Labor , and Populists: Farmer-Labor Insurgency in the Late-Nineteenth-Century South (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2007)
    • Melton A. McLaurin, The Knights of Labor in the South (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Corporation, 1978)
    • Michael J. Schewel, "Local Politics in Lynchburg, Virginia, in the 1880s," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 89:2 (Apr. 1981): 170-180.

    Topic 6: Violence in the New South

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • Donald G. Mathews, "The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice," Journal of Southern Religion 3 (2000), available at Journal of Southern Religion.
    • Edward J. Blum, "A Re-Introduction to Donald Mathews and Spectacle Lynchings," Journal of Southern Religion 17 (2015), available at Journal of Southern Religion
    • Amy Louise Wood, "Critical Conversation on Donald Mathews's 'The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice,'" Journal of Southern Religion 17 (2015), available at Journal of Southern Religion
    • T. R. C. Hutton, "Assassins and Feudists: Politics and Death in the Bluegrass and Mountains of Kentucky," in Bruce E. Stewart, ed., Blood in the Hills: A History of Violence in Appalachia (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2012), 272-313.
    • Daniel Levinson Wilk, "The Phoenix Riot and Memories of Greenwood County," Southern Cultures 8:4 (2002): 29-55.
    • Michael Ayers Trotti, "What Counts: Trends in Racial Violence in the Postbellum South," Journal of American History (2013) 100 (2): 375-400.
    Primary Sources
    • Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Southern Horrors: Lynch-Law in all its Phases (New York: New York Age, 1892), available online at https://archive.org/details/southernhorrors14975gut
    • Using the digitised newspapers available at the Library of Congress's Chronicling America collection or the New York Times, find, read, and bring to class at least three newspaper articles describing two or more lynchings. The lynchings should be in different decades from the 1880s to the 1910s, and they should be in different states.
    • Examine the Historic American Lynchings data contained in the spreadsheet at the project website or the newer lynching data compiled by the This Cruel War blog and come prepared to discuss what you can learn from the data. It might be useful to review the ideas in Trotti's article.
    • You might also want to look at this website about the victims of lynchings.
    Further Secondary Sources
    • J. William Harris, "Etiquette, Lynching and Racial Boundaries in Southern History : A Mississippi Example" American Historical Review 100:2 (Apr. 1995): 387-410.
    • Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (New York: Vintage Books, 1998), Ch. 5, 199-222 (not the entire chapter)
    • David F. Godshalk, "William J. Northen's Public and Personal Struggles Against Lynching," in Jane Dailey, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, and Bryant Simon, eds., Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000), 140-61.
    • W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993).
    • Michael J. Pfeiffer, Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874-1947 ( Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 2004).
    • Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009)
    • Bruce E. Baker, This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynchings in the Carolinas, 1871-1947 (New York: Continuum. 2008)
    • Stewart E. Tolnay and E. M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995), " Ch. 8: The Tragedy of Lynching: An Overview", pp. 239-258.
    • Christopher Waldrep, The Many Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in America (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)
    • Bruce E. Stewart, "'These Big-Boned, Semi-Barbarian People': Moonshining and the Myth of Violent Appalachia, 1870-1900," in Bruce E. Stewart, ed., Blood in the Hills: A History of Violence in Appalachia (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2012), 180-206.
    • Rand Dotson, "Race and Violence in Urbanizing Appalachia: The Roanoke Riot of 1893," in Bruce E. Stewart, ed., Blood in the Hills: A History of Violence in Appalachia (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2012), 237-271.

    Topic 7: Agrarian Protest and the Rise and Fall of the Populists

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • Edward L. Ayers, The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), Ch. 9-10.
    • William F. Holmes, "The Demise of the Colored Farmers' Alliance," Journal of Southern History 41:2 (May 1975): 187-200.
    • Matthew Hild, "Reassessing 'The Roots of Southern Populism,'" Agricultural History 82:1 (Winter 2008): 36-42.
    • "'Agricultural History' Roundtable on Populism," Agricultural History 82:1 (Winter 2008): 1-35.
    Primary Sources
    • Selections from N. A. Dunning, ed., The Farmers' Alliance History and Agricultural Digest (Washington, D.C.: Alliance Publishing Co., 1891), available at archive.org
      • Ch. VII, Dr. C. W. Macune, "The Purposes of the Farmers' Alliance," pp.257-261
      • Ch. VIII, Judge W. A. Peffer, "Government Control of Money," pp.262-271
      • Ch. IX, J. H. Turner, "The Race Problem," pp.272-279
      • Ch. XII, General R. M. Humphrey, "History of the Colored Farmers' National Alliance and Co-Operative Union," pp.288-292
    • The Ocala Demands (1890)
    • Listen to William Jennings Bryan recreate his 1896 Cross of Gold speech
    Further Secondary Sources
    • Lawrence Goodwyn, Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), Introduction (vii-xxiii), Ch. 5 (110-53), Ch. 7 (515-55)
    • Steven Hahn, The Roots of Southern Populism: Yeoman Farmers and the Transformation of the Georgia Upcountry, 1850-1890 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983)
    • Harvey H. Jackson, "The Middle-Class Democracy Victorious: The Mitcham War of Clarke County, Alabama, 1893," Journal of Southern History 57:3 (Aug. 1991): 453-78.
    • Robert C. McMath, Populist Vanguard: A History of the Southern Farmers' Alliance (New York: Norton, 1975)
    • Stephen Kantrowitz, Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), Ch. 3-4 (80-155)
    • Robert C. McMath, Jr., "Another Look at the 'Hard Side' of Populism," Reviews in American History 36:2 (June 2008): 209-17.

    Topic 8: The Rise and Rise of Jim Crow

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, Commemorative ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), Ch. 3 (67-109).
    • Michael M. Cohen, "Jim Crow's Drug War: Race, Coca Cola, and the Southern Origins of Drug Prohibition," Southern Cultures 12:3 (2006): 55-79.
    • Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (New York: Vintage Books, 1998), Introduction (3-11), Ch. 4, "Bounding Consumption" (121-97)
    Primary Sources Further Secondary Sources
    • Glenda Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996)
    • August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, "The Boycott Movement Against Jim Crow Streetcars in the South, 1900-1906," Journal of American History 55:4 (Mar. 1969): 756-775.
    • Howard N. Rabinowitz, "From Exclusion to Segregation: Southern Race Relations, 1865-1900," Journal of American History 63:2 (Sep. 1976): 325-350.
    • Leon F. Litwack, "Jim Crow Blues," OAH Magazine of History 18:2 (Jan. 2004): 7-11, 58.
    • Andrew W. Kahrl, "' The Slightest Semblance of Unruliness": Steamboat Excursions, Pleasure Resorts, and the Emergence of Segregation Culture on the Potomac River," Journal of American History 94:4 (Mar. 2008): 1108-1136.
    • John H. Ingham, "Building Businesses, Creating Communities: Residential Segregation and the Growth of African American Businesses in Southern Cities, 1880-1915," Business History Review 77:4 (Winter 2003): 639-665.

    Topic 9: Industrialisation in the New South

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • C. Vann Woodward, The Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971 [1951]), Ch. V, "The Industrial Evolution," pp. 107-141.
    • Jeffrey A. Drobney, "Company Towns and Social Transformation in the North Florida Timber Industry, 1880-1930," Florida Historical Quarterly 75:2 (Fall 1996): 121-145.
    • Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Robert Korstad, and James Leloudis, "Cotton Mill People: Work, Community, and Protest in the Textile South, 1880-1940," American Historical Review 91:2 (Apr. 1986): 245-286.
    • Brian Kelly, "Sentinels for New South Industry: Booker T. Washington, Industrial Accommodation, and Black Workers in the Jim Crow South," Labor History 44:3 (2003): 337-357.
    Primary Sources
    • Robert M. Patton, "The New Era of Southern Manufactures," Debow's Review vol. 3, no. 1 (1 Jan. 1867): 56-68, online at Making of America
    • Henry W. Grady, "The New South (1886)" in Edwin DuBois Shurter, ed., The Complete Orations and Speeches of Henry W. Grady (New York: Hinds, Noble and Eldredge, 1910), 7-22. Available on archive.org
    • excerpt from Henry W. Grady's speech to the Bay State Club of Boston, 1889, available at History Matters
    • Broadus Mitchell, The Rise of Cotton Mills in the South (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1921), 77-159. Available on archive.org
    • Broadus Mitchell, "Cotton Mills in Southern Civilization," in Broadus Mitchell and George Sinclair Mitchell, eds. The Industrial Revolution in the South (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1930), 238-270. Available on archive.org
    • Listen to the interview (and read the transcript) with Flossie Moore Durham, available at Documenting the American South
    Further Secondary Sources
    • Ronald L. Lewis, "From Peasant to Proletarian: The Migration of Southern Blacks to the Central Appalachian Coalfields," Journal of Southern History 55:1 (Feb. 1989): 77-102.
    • Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, et al., Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World, new ed., (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).
    • David L. Carlton and Peter A. Coclanis, "Capital Mobilization and Southern Industry, 1880-1905: The Case of the Carolina Piedmont," Journal of Economic History 49:1 (Mar. 1989): 73-94.
    • Daniel S. Margolies, Henry Watterson and the New South: The Politics of Empire, Free Trade, and Globalization (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2006)
    • Ronald D. Eller, Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982)
    • Brian Kelly, Race, Class, and Power in the Alabama Coalfields, 1908-1921 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001)
    • Daniel Letwin, The Challenge of Interracial Unionism: Alabama Coal Miners, 1878-1921 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998)
    • William P. Jones, The Tribe of Black Ulysses: African American Lumber Workers in the Jim Crow South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005)
    • Daniel Letwin, "Interracial Unionism, Gender, and 'Social Equality' in the Alabama Coalfields, 1878-1908," Journal of Southern History 61:3 (Aug. 1995): 519-554.

    Topic 10: The Progressive Era in the South

    Essential Secondary Sources
    • William A. Link, The Paradox of Southern Progressivism, 1880-1930 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), pp.3-30.
    • Dewey W. Grantham, "The Contours of Southern Progressivism," American Historical Review 86:5 (Dec., 1981): 1035-1059.
    • Claire Strom, "Texas Fever and the Dispossession of the Southern Yeoman Farmer," Journal of Southern History 66:1 (February 2000): 49-74.
    • Bryant Simon, "The Appeal of Cole Blease in South Carolina: Race, Class, and Sex in the New South," Journal of Southern History 62:1 (Feb. 1996): 57-86.
    Primary Sources
    • Charles W. Dabney, "Child Labor and the Public Schools," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 29 (Jan., 1907): 110-114.
    • Selections from James E. McCulloch, ed., The call of the new South; addresses delivered at the Southern Sociological Congress, Nashville, Tennessee, May 7 to 10, 1912 (Nashville: Southern Sociological Congress, 1912), available at Hathi Trust
      • Tom Finty, Jr., "Prison Conditions in the South," 92-103
      • William H. Samford, "Fundamental Inequalities of Administration of Laws," 124-129
      • Louis J. Bernhardt, "The Prisoner's Side," 129-134
      • Ennion G. Williams, "Sociological Importance of Vital Statistics," 148-153
      • W. D. Weatherford, "The Negro and the New South," 220-225
    • "Medical Masters Plead to People," New Orleans Daily Picayune, 4 August 1912, available on my website
    Further Secondary Sources
    • William A. Link, "Privies, Progressivism, and Public Schools: Health Reform and Education in the Rural South, 1909-1920," Journal of Southern History 54:4 (Nov. 1988): 623-42.
    • William A. Link, The Paradox of Southern Progressivism, 1880-1930 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992)
    • Pete Daniel, Breaking the Land: The Transformation of Cotton, Rice, and Tobacco Cultures since 1880 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985), Ch. 1, "The Boll Weevil, the Government, and the Cotton Culture" (3-22)
    • William A. Link, ed., The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths: And Other Documents of Social Reform in the Progressive Era South (Boston: Bedford Books, 1996)
    • Steven J. Hoffman, "Progressive Public Health Administration in the Jim Crow South: A Case Study of Richmond, Virginia, 1907-1920," Journal of Social History 35:1 (Autumn, 2001): 175-194.
    • Debra Reid, "Rural African Americans and Progressive Reform," Agricultural History 74:2 (Spring 2000): 322-339.
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